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Combine to form a C5 convertase. Runaway complement activation is prevented by binding of Complement Receptor 1 (CR1) and a constitutively active membrane bound Decay Accelerating Factor (DAF, or CD55) which can prevent the complement cascade[51]. In patients with severe dengue, large amounts of C3a have been detected revealing a role for complement in dengue pathogenesis. This finding might be an
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Les 1, 2). The sequences clustered with different clades and circulating recombinant forms distributed throughout the phylogenetic trees (Table 2), consistent with the breadth of HIV-1 diversity previously described in Cameroon. CRF02_AG-like viruses dominated the clade distribution, infecting 50 of the 46 participants for which both genes were sequenced (Figure 2). Participants infected with vir
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Issecting the earliest evolutionary steps in the emergence of HIV-1M. Keywords: HIV-1 diversity, West central Africa, RDP3, Maximum likelihood, PHYMLFindings The Congo basin in west central Africa is thought to be the origin of HIV, where several cross-species transmission events from chimpanzees to humans occurred [1,2]. Cameroon, located in this region, has one of the most genetically diverse HI
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Two samples for which only gag or nef was typed, these were classified as belonging to CRF11_cpx. Notably, despite subtypes B and C collectively accounting for approximately 75 infections worldwide [16], none of our sequences were classified as belonging to either of these clades. In 10/46 samples from which both nef and gag sequences were analysed, they were classified as belonging to different
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Cpx (4 each), and clades A, F, CRF01_AE and CRF36_cpx (2 each). In addition, 22 of the studied viruses apparently had nef and gag genes from viruses belonging to different clades, with the majority (8/10) having either a nef or gag gene derived from CRF02_AG. Interestingly, five gag sequences (10 ) and three (5 ) nef sequences were neither obviously recombinant nor easily classifiable into any
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Cias Zembe1, Eitel Mpoudi-Ngole2, Carolyn Williamson1,4 and Wendy A Burgers1*AbstractBackground: Cameroon, in west central Africa, has an extraordinary degree of HIV diversity, presenting a major challenge for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. Given the continuing need to closely monitor the emergence of new HIV variants in the country, we analyzed HIV-1 genetic diversity in 59 plasma s
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Ibution of HIV-1 in CameroonSample ID BS01 BS02 BS03 BS04 BS05 BS06 BS09 BS10 BS11 BS12 BS13 BS14 BS16 BS18 BS19 BS20 BS21 BS22 BS23 BS24 BS25 BS26 BS27 BS29 BS30 BS31 BS32 BS35 BS38 BS39 BS40 BS42 BS43 BS44 BS45 BS46 BS47 BS48 BS49 BS50 BS51 BS53 BS54 BS55 gag gene CRF02_AG A-like G G CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG A1 CRF02_AG G CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG NDc CRF02_AG NDc CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG C